Where Did your Violin Come From?

You should know something about the instrument you play. Like a little bit of its history. So, where did your instrument come from? Did it just appear one day? Did some guy wake up one morning and decide that he was going to make a violin that day? What led to the development of today’s violin?

Bowed Instruments

Violins are instruments that have strings. There have been instruments with strings for thousands of years! But violins have strings that are played with a bow – that’s different from instruments with strings that are played by plucking the strings. References exist to bowed string instruments at least as early as the 9th Century A.D. And these references come from all over! There were bowed string instruments in Mongolia, Persia, Spain, Poland, Bulgaria, Russia, Finland, France, China, and India. But none of these early instruments were really like the violin.

Which instrument provided the direct link to the violin? Good question – and there is not a definite answer. The two most likely answers are the viol (viola de gamba) or the lira de brascia. Neither of these groups of instruments were shaped like a violin, but they were based on some similar ideas. Viola de gambas were played in upright positions, sometimes even between the legs. (“gamba” means “leg). Lira de brascia instruments were held in the arms (“brascia” means “arm”).  For that reason, some think the lira de brascia was the direct link to the violin.

The Big Three of Violin Makers

Enter the Amati family in northern Italy in the 1500’s. Andrea Amati was a luthier. (Originally a luthier was a lute maker, or lute repairman. Today that is the term used for those who make violins.) He was the one responsible for making the first known four-string violin. He was commissioned by a member of the famous (and wealthy) Medici family to build a four-string violin. He must have done a good job because he and his family went on to make a name for themselves building many famous violins.

The Amati family of violin makers were responsible for establishing the basic proportions of the violin – very similar to the instrument you have today. At some point he started using a mold, or a form, for his violins. This allowed him to be even more precise in his measurements. Quality control for his violins. The most famous violin maker in the Amati family was Andrea’s grandson, Nicolo.

The Amati family also taught others to make violins through an apprenticeship program. Two other famous violin makers learned under the teaching of Nicolo Amati – Giuseppe Guarneri and Antonio Stradivari. Ever heard of either of them? I hope so! A few of their violins are still in use today – and they are worth millions! Many violins made since them are patterned after the designs and techniques of either Guarneri, Stradivari, or Amati. The label on the inside of your instrument might have one of their names on it – meaning your instrument was made in the style of one of those former makers.

Changes in Perception

Let’s play a little word association game for a minute. What are the first things that come to your mind when you hear the word “violin?” Instrument? Practice? Expensive concert? Exclusive? Lovely sound? To our minds today, violins are associated with concert halls, high class performances, etc. But it wasn’t always that way. Originally the instrument was associated with the lower classes. It started out as an instrument for professional street musicians. Other performers who used the violin were servants, folk musicians, performers of dance music. Over time the violin became more accepted by the upper classes. By the early 1600s the violin was being used in orchestras. Claudio Monteverdi was one of the first composers to include the violin in his scores.

Changes in Violins

Has your violin teacher ever said anything to you about your posture? Like, maybe, every week? Good thing your teacher didn’t have to deal with early violins and violinists! No good posture solutions existed then! During the time of Bach (Baroque era), chin rests and shoulder rests did not exist. Violinists held the instrument angled toward the floor. That limited the use of the arm holding the violin, so no one could play in any of the upper positions. The bows of the time were shorter and lighter, limiting the sound of the instrument. Early violins produced a sound that was soft, rough, and muddy. Baroque violins did not sound like the violins we are used to hearing today.

Bow Innovations

Innovation to the rescue! How did we get the violins that we hear today? What caused the sound to change, the technique to improve, the comfort level and posture to become bearable? In 1726 Francoise Tourte redesigned the violin bow. He changed the bend of the bow, so it arched backwards. He also standardized the length and weight of the bow. These changes in weight, length, and balance allowed the violin to sound with more power and brilliance, especially in the upper ranges.

Addition of a Chin Rest

Another great improvement came in 1820 when Louis Spohr invented the chin rest. Can you imagine playing your instrument without a chin rest? The addition of a chin rest allowed players much more comfort in holding and playing the instrument. It also allowed for a great advancement of playing technique – the left arm was much freer, so the fingers were freer to move up and down the fingerboard. The sore necks of violinists have been thanking him ever since!

Change the Instrument, Change the Sound

And then there were changes to the instrument itself. In the 1800s the fingerboards were lengthened, which allowed players to use more of the E string. The bridge was raised, and the fingerboard was tilted and raised, giving a greater volume and brightness to the sound of the violin.

While we’re at it, Change the Strings

Even the strings got in on the improvement action. Originally violin strings were made of sheep or lamb gut. As early as the late 1600s, though, violin makers started using G-strings of gut wound with silver or copper. By the late 1800s violinists were experimenting with steel strings. This was especially true with the E-strings. They were the thinnest strings and, therefore, the most easily broken.

The two World Wars had an impact on violin strings. The wars caused great disruption to the animal trade – not so much sheep gut available for strings. Also, the wars brought about advances in the steel industry, so it was easier to produce the thin strings needed for violin. But many players didn’t like the sounds produced by steel strings.

By the middle of the 1900s players were beginning to use, and like, synthetic strings. Dominant strings made by Thomastik were the first big players in the synthetic string market. D’Addario began marketing strings for violins made of the same material as the strings used for tennis rackets. Now, most violinists use synthetic strings.

Does your own violin have its own story?

Do you appreciate your violin more, now that you know a bit more of its story? Aren’t you glad you have the more modern version of the instrument? And the help of a chin rest? Do you know anything more specific about your instrument? Sometimes the label inside the violin will give you some clues. (Look inside one of the f-holes to look for a label.) When one of my daughter’s bought her bow, she was told that it was made from wood that used to be a Brazilian fence post. I’d love to hear anything you know about your instrument! Tell me your stories! (Use the Comments Section.)

To read more about the history of violins and their strings, you might enjoy these sources:

Where did your violin come from?
Where did your violin come from?

Band vs. Orchestra

Band or Orchestra?

The question music students have been debating for ages. Which one is better? Ask any band student, and he will say that band is better. Ask any orchestra student, and he will say that orchestra is better. Some might say that orchestra members are more serious about their music, but band members are more fun.

Guess what? There is no right answer! There are great orchestras. There are great bands. But because they are different, you can’t really say one is “better” than the other. Just different.

So how are they different?

Do you know the difference between a band and an orchestra? If not, read on. To be as simple as possible, an orchestra has string instruments. A band does not.

Orchestra

Chamber Orchestra

A chamber orchestra has only string instruments – violins, violas, cellos, basses. Chamber orchestras typically have 40-50 members.

Full Orchestra

A full orchestra, or a symphonic orchestra, is usually a much larger group of musicians. A full orchestra has all the string instruments, but also includes a representation of all the band instruments, including percussion. A symphony orchestra can have as many as 100 members, with probably 25 or so belonging to the woodwind, brass, and percussion sections.

Band

Concert Band

A concert band is a group of woodwind, brass, and percussion players with several musicians playing each part. It might have 6 or 7 first flutes, 6 or 7 second flutes, 6 or 7 first clarinets, and so on.

Wind Ensemble

A smaller group, but similar to a concert band, is the wind ensemble. This group has the same instruments represented as the concert band, but on a smaller scale. A wind ensemble usually has only 1 or 2 players on each part. 

Marching Band

A marching band is a band that plays while marching. This could be at the halftime show of a football game or at a parade.  I recently watched the Rose Bowl Parade, and many of the marching bands there had between 150-200 members!

Jazz Band

Jazz bands are another member of the band family. Instrumentation for jazz bands varies a lot – depending on the venue, the music, the style. Most have much smaller ensembles than the other bands mentioned, but usually include percussion, a couple different saxophones, possibly a clarinet or a trumpet, a bass, and trombone.

And which one came first?

Good question. And no easy answer! It depends on your definition of band and orchestra. Flutes are the earliest instruments archaeologists have discovered, dating back many thousands of years. Trumpet-like instruments have been around since at least 1500 B.C. (Score for band.) And the Bible speaks of King David being skilled with a harp. He lived around 1000 B.C. (Score for orchestra.) Also, if you believe the Bible, Genesis 4:21 speaks of a man named Jubal who was the “father of all such that handle to harp and organ.” (Score for both.)

Early Orchestras

In Medieval and early Renaissance times, an orchestra referred to any group of musicians playing together. “Modern” string orchestras started to form in the mid-1500’s. These had instruments similar to our current violins, violas, cellos, and basses. In the early 1600’s composers began to specify which instruments they wanted to play which parts. By the mid-1600’s orchestras used strings with some wind or percussion instruments.

Modern Orchestras

Modern string instruments were developed earlier than the modern woodwind and brass instruments.  As our modern wind and brass instruments were developed, they were added to the orchestra. By the middle of the 1800’s orchestras often had the same instrumentation that orchestras have today.

Your Opinion?

So, which came first? Bands or orchestras? Which is better? Band or orchestra? Your answer may be based on definition. And it may be based on personal preference! Which one do you like better? Which one do you think is better? I would love to hear your thoughts! Leave your ideas in the comments.

Band vs. Orchestra
Band vs. Orchestra
Band vs. Orchestra - Which one is Better?
Band vs. Orchestra